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Simulated Native American Artifact Excavation Activity

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If you ask kids today how we know what we know about a subject they often will answer “google” or the “internet”. Try it.

To get students to think of themselves as seekers of knowledge, I’m always trying to create lessons that allow them to comprehend information through their own discoveries. This makes lessons more personal, meaningful and memorable.

To help elementary age students learn about the Lenape or Delaware Native Americans I create a simulated artifact excavation activity. I’ll bury animal bones (mostly deer and bear), pottery shards, arrowheads, shells and stones. The students become archaeologists making exciting discoveries as they excavate, clean, record and organize findings.

When ready we circle around the findings and one at a time discuss what we think an item is, what it was used for and what the modern equivalent might be.

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Can You Dig It!

Uncover and analyze artifacts in an

attempt to reconstruct aspects of 

New Jersey Indian Life and Culture.

 

Lesson:

Participants approach excavation site to uncover artifacts of the Lenape people in a simulated archaeological dig.

    • Job 1 Digging: This team works to take layer by layer the soil including artifacts from the site to provide to the sifters.
    • Job 2 Sifting: at this station material from the dig is sorted through to remove the artifacts.  The team works together to find everything they can.  Encourage the group to be meticulous in the sorting process, small objects may be harder to find.
    • Job 3 Sorting: This team is responsible for sorting the objects in similar piles.  This can be done in containers of different sizes.
    • Job 4 Recording: Using the grid view data sheet recorders document what quadrant and depth level items were discovered.

Extension:

  • Arrowhead Necklace: Allow participants to search in a simulated archeological dig to find arrowheads. The arrowheads can be tied up with cord to make a necklace.  Explain that in a real dig the archaeologists would never take anything because they would go to a museum for everyone to study and enjoy.
  • Ask participants to make a mystery box of artifacts from their life. Allow teams to try and reconstruct the persons life from the items brought in to share.
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24 Wild Foraged Autumn Ingredients Cooked over a Campfire

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I was challenged in a friendly competition to put my naturalist knowledge into action and make my best possible meal in an Autumn Foraging, Fishing, Hunting and Camping scenario. Recognizing that native people must have eaten over a 100 different wild foods in a year, a more varied diet than many or most of us today, I wanted to try and incorporate as many foods as I could possible find in this truly local meal.
I was able to create a menu composed of 24 fresh and local wild crafted ingredients (18 plants, 2 mushrooms, 4 animals).

Animals: Trout, Deer, Squirrel, Bear (lard)
Plants: Stinging Wood Nettle, Lambs Quarters, Onion Grass, Wild Apple, Autumn Olive, White Pine, Mixed Acorn, Black Walnut, Wintergreen, Sweet Fern, Sweet Birch, Spice Bush, Sassafrass, Garlic Mustard, Wild Leek, Staghorn Sumac, Juniper Berries, Fox Grape (water)
Fungus: Hen of the Woods, Chicken of the Woods

The meal has been cooked over a split oak wood fire that was lit with a white pine bow drill friction fire.  Bear grease was used as the cooking oil.

AUTUMN BUSHCRAFT FORAGING MENU 

Salad & Soup (Served with a Sweet Fern Tea)

Nettle, Lambs Quarters, Onion Grass, Garlic Mustard, Crab Apple with an Autumn Olive Drizzle
Wild Foraged Autumn Salad (3)

Mixed Wild Mushroom (Hen of the Woods and Chicken of the Woods), Stinging Wood Nettle and Rice Soup
Wild Foraged Autumn Soup (4)

 

Entrée (Served with White Pine Tea)
Roasted Trout with Wild Leeks, Chives and a Staghorn Sumac Spice
Wild Foraged Trout, Hen of the Woods, Chives Meal with Sumac Seed Spice (5)

Venison Heart, Hen of the Woods and Wild Leeks flavored with dried Spicebush Berries
Wild Foraged Autumn Meal, Venison, Nettle, Leek

Squirrel stuffed with Autumn Olive, Juniper Berries, Wild Apple and Stinging Nettle surrounded by Hen and Chicken of the Woods Mushrooms. (Bacon Wrapped and covered in tinfoil and cooked in the coals)
Squirrel stuffed with Wild Foraged Edibles

Desert (Served with Tripple S Tea made of Sweetbirch, Spicebush & Sassafrass)
Acorn Bannock Tart made with Black Walnuts and Grape Vine water. Topped with Wild Apple, Fox Grape and Autumn Olive fruit.
Wild Foraged Autumn Bannock Tart Dessert

 

Part 1: Wild Foraging Harvest

Part 2: Wild Foraged Feast

 

 

New Specials added Seasonally!

Foragers Spice Kit aka The Spice of Life: Spicebush Berries dried and chopped finely, Sweet Fern dried and powdered, Mountain Mint dried and powdered, Wild Ginger dried and powdered or infused into oil, Sumac Seed Heads, Garlic Mustard Seeds, Bay Berry Leaves and Seeds, Juniper berries.

 

 

Evaluation

  • Well it sure would have been easier to do this with a team!  The gathering of ingredients took exploration in multiple habitats and would surely be collected throughout the seasons and not necessarily in a hurry for one specific meal.
  • The changing of the seasons made collection a challenge as well as competing with wildlife and the changing appearance and growing location of plants. Focusing on lower elevations and wetlands allowed for the harvesting of certain species that would otherwise be too far gone at higher elevations or north facing slopes.
  • The biggest help was familiarity with local habitats that reduced the gamble of trying to find specific plants and made for easier and faster acquisition.
  • Survival needs are often discussed to include Shelter, Water, Fire and Food in that progression.  However, once you have the top three of four priorities met the majority of your time will be spent on food gathering.
  • The easiest of ingredients to find were mushrooms, nettles, acorns, hickory nuts and walnuts. I could have spent the majority of my time gathering and processing nuts in one general location (while simultaneously fishing) and happened upon a few other ingredients along the way.  This would have been the most calorie efficient way to go. 

Leave a reply below and let me know what you think!

Lenape Site and Native American Day

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Together with Mike Dennis of Traditional Earth Skills we’ve created a Lenape Learning Area where students can experience and participate in Native American educational programming including field trips, camps, workshops and special events.

The site creates wonderful opportunities for program and event visitors to participate in a variety of experiential hands-on and skill-based activities and crafts.  Some of the offerings have included Three-Sisters Garden planting, Sewing Medicine Bags and Moccasins, Dyeing bracelets with Native Plants, Crushing Corn with Mortar and Pestle, Throwing Corn Cob Darts, Fire-Friction and Fire Building Skills, Cord Making, Simulated Archaeological Digs, Wild Edible and Medicinal Plant Walks and much more.

The Lenape Learning area includes: Wigwam Shelter, Mortar and Pestle Corn Grinder, Garden Area with Deer Antler and Scapula Gardening Tools, Food Cache Pit, Corn Cob Dart Throwing Station, Fish Drying Station and Hide Tanning Display.

To learn more about program opportunities in NJ, check out Mike’s site at www.TraditionalEarthSkills.com 

Wetland Habitat Restoration

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This is an exciting time of year for nature lovers as spring flowers make their grand appearance. At my workplace, we have been making efforts to enhance a wetland habitat with native plantings surrounded by fenced deer exclosure.  Our goal is to try and reintroduce some of the players or species that once made up the winning team of a healthy wetland forest ecosystem.  In time, the restoration will act to provide better access to nature for both people and wildlife.

The native plants chosen are adapted to the wetland soils and understory of the mature forest currently present. As they regenerate they will create an additional floor and shrub layer within the habitat.  This provides important feeding and nesting areas for many bird and insect species and rewards us with a healthier functioning ecosystem.

15 Kid-Approved Native American Crafts & Games

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Allowing children to use their hands to create projects from natural materials can make for very rewarding learning experiences.  With limited amounts of time available for projects in today’s formal and non-formal classrooms the following crafts are my favorite for introductory activities related to Native American Life.  Please comment and share your favorites in the comment section below.

Clay Track Necklace: Make a ball of air dry clay slightly larger than a golf ball and press it flat into a disk.  Next press an animal foot into the clay to leave an impression.  Add a hole with a pencil for string to turn into a necklace or ornament.  The track can also be used to represent your spirit animal.  Or make Plaster Animal Tracks!

Raccoon Track Clay Necklace or Ornament

Dream Catcher: Cut a piece of willow, dogwood or other flexible branch to create a circle within which you can create your dream catcher.  Instruct students to tie a piece of string or artificial sinew to the side and begin to tie it across adding beads or feathers as they like while attempting to stay out of the middle to create an eye.  Native Americans of the Great Plains believed the air filled with both good and bad dreams.  According to legend, the good dreams pass through the center hole to the sleeping person and the bad dreams are trapped in the web, where they perish in the light of dawn.

Dream Catcher

Corn Cob Darts:  Simply add a feather into the back of a corncob.  Can be used for stalking games or to demonstrate how children develop skills and coordination in play that may be necessary skills for adults to acquire food.  The corn cob dart is like that of a spear or throwing stick used in hunting.

Corn Cob Darts

Dyeing Bracelets: Make reverse wrap cord or braid cotton string into a bracelet. Place the string into a dye bath from boiled blueberries or other natural dye of your choice.  Add salt and vinegar as a mordant to fix the dye and let dry in the sunshine.

Dyeing with Natural Materials

Pokean:  Wrap corn husk around a pebble and tie tight.  Add a feather for decoration.  Tap the poekan in the air like a hackysac but use both feet and hands.

Pokean

Ring and Pin: Find a stiff stick about 12″ long and a flexible branch from a willow or dogwood that can be bent into a circle.  Tie the two together with some cord, sinew, yarn, raffia, jute or whatever you choose.  Try and flip the circle onto the stick.  This game is sometimes referred to as “spear the deer”.  The player who takes the least amount of tries to put the stick through the hoop wins.

Ring and Pin

Medicine Bag: As detailed in another post.  Students can create their own medicine bag with simple materials such as raffia, felt, canvas duck cloth, etc…

Medicine Bag Children's Craft

Clay Pots: Using air dry clay or naturally harvested clay children create pinch and/or coil pots.  Arrowheads can be used to soften or draw designs on the sides.

Clay Pot

Planting a Three Sisters Garden: According to legend, corn, beans and squash are three sisters who only grow and thrive together.  Corn provides a natural pole for the beans vines to climb; the beans help stabilize the corn plants; and squash vines help prevent the soil from drying out. Mix the three seeds in a healthy soil mix and add to a pot to a large pot to take home.

Planting a Three - Sisters Garden

Native Plant Walk Collage: Take a walk in a natural area for plants the Native people would have used for food, medicine and tools.  If you are unfamiliar with your local plants take time to learn just five and focus on those five as a starting point.  You can instruct students to write the names or print labels for them to stick onto the paper.  They may add detail about each plant next to the taped piece of it.  This journal was made with a found stick as the binding, 

Lenape Plant Journal

Make Canvas Moccasins:  You can use canvas cloth for the first pair and instruct students to use leather once they are experienced in the design. You can purchase leather from a craft supply store or buy an old pair of leather pants from the second hand store and cut them up to be re-purposed. See Moccasin Post for Instructions. 

Corn Cob Dolls: Make your own primitive barbie with husks from a corn cob. Take six pieces and fold them in half.  Tie a piece of raffia or thin piece of corn cob two inches down from the to to make a head. Separate out the pieces on the right and left for the arms and tie them at the wrist. Tie another piece around the waist and one on each leg at the knee cap.

Corn Cob Doll

Magnetic Fishing: Purchase pre-cut fish shapes from a craft store and have your students paint them as they wish or paint them to match a native fish in your area. Glue on a magnet to make a magnetic fishing game.  I taped another magnet to the end of a fishing string to create just enough pull to make a steady hand necessary. This works great as a free-play kinda activity station and prepares children for the real thing.

Magnetic Fishing, Nature Into Action.com

 

Paper Bag Vests: You can reuse your paper bags from the grocery store to create vests for early learners. The children can be prompted to decorate their vest according to a clan they are assigned (Lenape: wolf, turtle, turkey) or they could camouflage the vest with leaves, clay and natural dye pigments.

Paper Bag Vest - Prompt to decorate accord. to clan

 

Clay bead necklace: Roll small balls of air-dry clay and push a pencil through to make a hole.  Let them dry. Painting with tempera crayons seems to work well for a make and take project.

20161115_153136

 

 

Charcoal Art: Use burnt sticks from a fire or make your own charcoal sticks to draw animals or scenes of nature. Can be done on a piece of slate like rock or paper.

Making Charcoal Pencils, Winter Camp, Nature Into Action (11)

Drawing with Charcoal Pencils at Winter Camp

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